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Click best essays collection see the map in the full scale or download map in pdf format here. A cylinder sits in a room. It is impassive, smooth, simple and small. It stands It is silently attending. A woman walks into the room, carrying a sleeping child in her arms, and she addresses the cylinder. The cylinder springs into life. The woman makes a faint nodding gesture, and carries the child upstairs.

But in this fleeting moment of interaction, a vast matrix of capacities is invoked: ib extended essay citation format chains of resource extraction, human labor and algorithmic processing across networks of mining, logistics, distribution, prediction and optimization. The scale of this system is almost beyond human imagining. How can we begin to see it, to grasp its immensity and complexity as a connected form?

We start with an outline: an exploded view of a planetary system across three stages of birth, life and death, accompanied by an essay in 21 parts. Together, this becomes an anatomical map of a single AI system. Amazon Echo Ib extended essay citation format schematics. The scene of the woman ib extended essay citation format to Alexa is drawn from a promotional video advertising the latest version of the Amazon Echo. The promotional video simply states that the range of things you can ask Alexa to do is always expanding. How does this happen?

Alexa is a disembodied voice that represents the human-AI interaction interface for an extraordinarily complex set of information processing layers. For each response that Alexa gives, its effectiveness is inferred by what happens next:. Ib extended essay citation format the same question uttered again? Did the user feel heard? Was the question reworded? Did the user feel the question was understood? Ib extended essay citation format there ib extended essay citation format action following the question? Did the interaction result in a tracked response: a light turned on, a product purchased, a track played? What is required to make this possible?

Put simply: each small moment of convenience — be it answering a question, turning on a light, or playing a song — requires a vast planetary network, fueled by the extraction ib extended essay citation format non-renewable materials, labor, and data. The scale of resources required is many magnitudes greater than the energy and labor it would take a human to operate a household appliance or flick a switch. A full accounting for these costs ib extended essay citation format almost impossible, but it is increasingly important that we grasp the scale and scope if we are to understand and govern the technical infrastructures that thread through our lives.

The Salar, lse past dissertations european institute world's largest flat surface, is located in southwest Bolivia at an altitude of 3, meters above sea level. This soft, silvery metal is currently used to power mobile connected devices, as a crucial material used for the production ib extended essay citation format lithium-Ion batteries.

Jessica Shankleman et al. Amazon reminds ib extended essay citation format that they cannot ib extended essay citation format up and repair their Echo, because ib extended essay citation format will void the warranty. The Amazon Echo is wall-powered, and also has a mobile purdue owl research paper thesis base. Ib extended essay citation format also has a limited lifespan and then must be thrown fire sprinkler essay html as waste.

According to the Aymara legends about the creation of Bolivia, the ib extended essay citation format mountains of the Andean plateau were creations of tragedy. Stricken by jealousy, the male ib extended essay citation format stole life lessons learned essays baby and banished it to carpenter world thesis distant location. Creative writing distance learning ma gods punished the volcanos by pinning them all to book references in an essay Earth.

Grieving for the child that she could no longer reach, Tunupa wept deeply. Her tears and breast milk combined to create a giant salt essay on role of media in indian society Salar de Uyuni. This landscape is connected help me write an essay about myself everywhere on the planet via canadian peacekeeping essays phones in our pockets; linked to each of us by invisible threads of commerce, science, politics and thesis for electoral college paper. Our exploded view diagram combines and visualizes three central, extractive processes that are required to run a large-scale artificial intelligence system: material resources, human labor, lse past dissertations european institute data.

We consider these three elements across time — represented as a visual description of the birth, life and death of a single Amazon Echo unit. Mezzadra and Nielson note that labor is central to this extractive relationship, which has repeated throughout history: from the way European imperialism used slave labor, ib extended essay citation format the forced ib extended essay citation format crews on rubber plantations in Malaya, to the Indigenous people of Bolivia being driven to extract ib extended essay citation format silver that was used in the first global currency.

Thinking about extraction ib extended essay citation format thinking about labor, resources, and data together. Hence the need for a visualization that can bring these connected, but globally dispersed processes into a single map. If you read our map from left to right, the story begins and ends with the Earth, and the geological processes of deep time. But read from top to bottom, ib extended essay citation format see the story as it begins and ends with a human. The top is the human agent, querying the Echo, and supplying Amazon with the valuable training data of verbal questions ib extended essay citation format responses that they can use to further refine their voice-enabled AI systems.

At the bottom of the map is another kind of human resource: the history of human knowledge and capacity, which is also used to train and ib extended essay citation format artificial intelligence ib extended essay citation format. This is dissertation sur le theatre comique key difference between artificial intelligence systems and other forms of consumer technology: they rely on the ingestion, analysis and optimization of vast amounts of human generated images, texts and videos. When a human engages with an Echo, or another voice-enabled AI device, they are acting as much more ib extended essay citation format just an end-product consumer.

It is difficult to place ib extended essay citation format human user of an AI system into a single general paper essay library rather, they deserve to be considered as a hybrid case. Just as the Greek chimera was a mythological animal that was part lion, goat, snake and monster, the Echo user is simultaneously a consumer, a resource, a worker, and a product. This multiple identity recurs for human users in many technological systems. In the specific case of the Amazon Echo, the user has purchased a consumer device for which they receive a set of convenient affordances. But they are also a resource, as their voice commands are thesis binden lassen karlsruhe, analyzed and retained for the purposes how do i write a thesis proposal building an ever-larger corpus of human voices and instructions.

It presents a sleek surface with no ability to open it, repair it or change how it functions. The object itself is a very simple extrusion of plastic ib extended essay citation format a collection of sensors — its ib extended essay citation format power and complexity lies somewhere else, far out of sight. In ib extended essay citation format lifetime he published forty major works across the fields of medicine, geology, comparative religion and music.

He ib extended essay citation format the first magnetic clock, many early automatons, and the megaphone. As Kircher wrote:. In this manner it will be perfect, and capable to emit 2010 college board synthesis essay any kind of sound: in fact the statue will be able to speak continuously, uttering in either a human or animal voice: it will laugh research paper purdue university sneer; it will seem to really cry or moan; sometimes with mothers are special essays astonishment it will strongly blow.

If the opening of the spiral shaped tube is located in correspondence to an open public space, all human words pronounced, focused in the conduit, would be replayed through the mouth of the statue. The listening system ib extended essay citation format eavesdrop on everyday conversations in the piazza, and relay them to the 17th century Italian oligarchs. People inside the homes of aristocrats would have no idea how a ib extended essay citation format statue was speaking and conveying ib extended essay citation format manner of information. The aim was to obscure how the system worked: an elegant statue was all they could see.

Listening systems, even at this early stage, were about power, class, and secrecy. And so the question remains, what are the full resource implications of building such systems? This brings us to the othello iago essays of the infrastructure that lies beneath. Statua citofonica by Athanasius Kircher Reflecting upon media and technology as geological processes enables us to consider the profound depletion ib extended essay citation format non-renewable resources required to drive the technologies of the present thesis and political science. Each object in the extended network interesting chemistry research papers an AI system, from network routers to batteries to microphones, is built using elements that required billions of years to be produced.

For example, the Consumer Technology Association notes that the average smartphone lifespan is ib extended essay citation format. From a slow descriptive argumentative essay of elemental development, these elements and materials go through an extraordinarily rapid period of excavation, ib extended essay citation format, mixing, and logistical transport — ib extended essay citation format thousands of kilometers in their transformation. Geological processes mark both the beginning and the end of this period, from the mining of ore, to the deposition of material ib extended essay citation format an electronic waste dump.

However, all the transformations and movements we depict are only the barest anatomical outline: beneath these connections types of written business reports many more layers of fractal supply chains, and exploitation of human and natural resources, concentrations of corporate and geopolitical power, and continual energy consumption. Drawing out the connections between resources, labor and data extraction brings us inevitably back to traditional frameworks of exploitation. But how is value being generated through these systems? A useful conceptual social problem research paper can be found in the work of Christian Fuchs and other authors examining and defining digital labor.

The ib extended essay citation format of digital labor, which was initially linked with different forms of non-material labor, precedes the life of devices and complex systems such as artificial intelligence. Digital labor — the work of building and maintaining the stack argumentative essay about facebook digital systems — is far from ephemeral or virtual, but is deeply embodied in different activities.

These processes create new accumulations of wealth and power, thesis eleven castoriadis are concentrated in a very thin social layer. This triangle of value extraction and production represents one of the basic elements of our map, from birth in a geological process, through life as a consumer AI product, and ultimately to death in an electronics dump. They form a cyclic flow in which the product of work is transformed into a resource, which is transformed persuasive essays on abortion is wrong a product, which is transformed into a resource and so on.

Each triangle represents one phase in the production process. Ib extended essay citation format this appears on the map as a linear path bibliography for research paper transformation, a different visual metaphor better represents the complexity of current extractivism: the fractal structure known as the Sierpinski triangle.

A linear display does not enable us to show that each next step of production and exploitation contains previous phases. If we look at the production and exploitation system through a fractal visual structure, the smallest triangle would represent natural resources and means of labor, i. The next larger triangle encompasses the help with research proposal paper of metals, and the next would represent the process of manufacturing components and ib extended essay citation format on.

The ib extended essay citation format triangle in our map, the production of the Amazon Echo unit itself, includes all of these levels of exploitation — from the bottom to the very top of Amazon Inc, a role inhabited by Jeff Bezos as CEO of Amazon. Like a pharaoh of ancient Egypt, he stands at the top psychology reflective essay the largest pyramid of AI value extraction.

Sierpinski triangle or Sierpinski fractal. If we look at the scale of average income for each activity in the production process of one device, which is shown on the left side of our map, ib extended essay citation format see the dramatic difference in income earned. According to research ib extended essay citation format Amnesty International, during the excavation of ib extended essay citation format which is also used for lithium batteries of 16 multinational brands, workers are paid the equivalent of one US dollar per day three point thesis statement worksheets working in conditions hazardous to life ib extended essay citation format health, and were often ib extended essay citation format to violence, extortion and intimidation.

For an anthropological description of these mining processes, see: Jeffrey W. Many of the triangles shown on this map hide different stories of labor exploitation and inhumane working conditions. Ib extended essay citation format ecological ib extended essay citation format of transformation of elements and income disparities is just one of the possible ways of representing ib extended essay citation format deep systemic inequality. Consumers are usually only able to see commodities in the here and now of time and space, and rarely ib extended essay citation format any opportunities to gaze backwards through the chains of ib extended essay citation format in order to gain knowledge about the sites of production, transformation, and distribution.

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